However, measures with demonstrated potential effectiveness, co-benefits and with no or few disbenefits renewable energy as well as other local solutions except assisted evolution are no-regret measures that can be widely deployed immediately, as other potential solutions are explored.
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The high merits of renewable energy is consistent with the conventional policy approach that the best way to avoid climate impacts on the marine environment, as well as elsewhere is to eliminate the primary driver, excess atmospheric CO 2 concentration, by drastically reducing CO 2 emissions Gattuso et al. Fourth, climate change intervention at multiple scales requires that multiple and diverse actors are involved, hence calling for coordination across scales.
Interestingly, besides being central to decisions on global measures, our assessment suggests that the international community can also play an indirect supporting role to the implementation of local solutions. The international community must therefore accelerate diplomatic and political efforts, especially within institutions such as the UNFCCC and the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, to improve existing arrangements or find new ones, and develop facilitative mechanisms for global to local action.
Fifth, since there are controversies and uncertainties on many of the measures we considered, a better scientific understanding of solution benefits, disbenefits, costs, and suitable governance arrangements is needed to inform policy and decision making. A major area of research thus relies in better determining potential effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and desirability under various greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Furthermore, given the social challenges involved in all potential solutions, social science research is needed for understanding factors that hinder or promote effective and fair governance of ocean-based solutions Magnan et al.
In turn, this will allow a balanced consideration of new, unconventional ideas e. This is a prerequisite for providing decision- and policy-makers with robust information, for example through the various products of the sixth assessment cycle of the IPCC. As new knowledge and insights become available, it is key that scientists effectively engage with the general public and decision makers, especially discussing the potential, feasibility, tradeoffs and social preferences of specific measures, and the consequences of failing to deploy solutions on time.
This will notably help to increase mutual understanding and serve to reduce confusion and misinformation regarding the realized and future impacts of climate change on the ocean Gelcich et al. Both the marine policy and science communities need to recognize the uncertainties and limitations of currently available climate and ocean management options; support the immediate development of the most promising ones, e.
All co-authors conducted the analyses and wrote the paper. The contents in this manuscript are solely the opinions of the authors and do not constitute a statement of policy, decision, or position on behalf of the Pacific Community. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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