The Physical Electronics Department of SRI International formerly Stanford Research Institute has been pioneering the development of devices fabricated to submicron tolerances for well over 20 years.
In , a landmark paper on electron-beam lithography and its associated technologies was published by K. Shoulderst then at SRI , which set the stage for our subsequent efforts in this field.
The Physics of Microfabrication
He had the foresight to believe that the building of such small devices was actually within the range of human capabilities. This technology takes advantage of established semiconductor fabrication processes, used to make integrated circuits, and, over the past two decades, has been used for the fabrication of tools with applications in biology, medicine and biomedical engineering.
In their native physiological environment cells constantly encounter and respond to a multitude of signals, such as growth factor and cytokine stimulation, cell-cell signaling, interaction with the extracellular matrix ECM and physical inputs like stiffness, topography and shear stress. A key challenge in cell biology is the design of experimental methods and specific assays to disentangle the contribution of these cell-governing parameters. Conventional cell culture supports, such as tissue culture flasks and Petri dishes, represent just a trivial approximation of the complex microenvironment that cells reside in.
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W.M. Keck Microfabrication Facility
Lewerenz eds , Wiley, c Inoue, K. Ohtaka, eds , Springer, c P P78 Nanoelectronics and Information Technology, R. Waser, ed.
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Wiley-VCH T G67 Micromachines as Tools for Nanotechnology, H. Fujita ed. Marcel Dekker, c